(NOTE: These are NOT the questions for tomorrow's class--you'll find them in the previous post. These are notes that might give you another avenue of inquiry for Paper #1. Enjoy or ignore as you see fit!).
The "gothic" in literature was partially influenced by German drama, notably the plays of Klinger and Schiller (as well as the works of Goethe and Hamann). Kilinger wrote a romantic drama called "Sturm und Drang" (Storm and Stress) written in 1776 that dramatized the American Revolution--stressing sentiment and emotion over sense and convention. The idea of shocking the audience/reader into sublime states and identifying with the extreme emotions of the characters caught on quickly, notably in music. Much of eighteenth-century music was dominated by the Rococo style, which emphasized light, polished "event music" to be played in courtly settings. Composers began to realize that music should do more than provide background music; it, too, could shock, surprise, terrify, and move its listeners to profound emotion. Though not Gothic per se, this music channeled the same sensibility we find in Walpole, where the strange and the mundane exist side by side.
Two of his final works, the pathetic, quicksilver Symphony No.40 in G minor and his Requiem Mass in D minor exhibit the final flowering of Mozart's gothic vision. The symphony is extremely restless, conjuring up one sublime sensation after another (notably the opening theme, which plunges the listener immediately into the drama). The Mass takes this a step further, expressing a darkness that Mozart had never previously confronted (and then only briefly, such as his earlier C minor Mass, or possibly the Concerto No.20). A Requiem mass is a mass for the dead, sung in praise of the deceased's soul, and concerns images of judgement and retribution. According to legend, a mysterious nobleman commissioned a sick and penniless Mozart to compose the piece. Already weak, the effort of composing probably helped do Mozart in, though some colorful legends suggest he thought the nobleman was his dead father, returning from the grave to demand satisfaction. At any rate, Mozart died, and the nobleman never recieved the mass; Mozart's widow had one of his students complete it (it was only about 60% finished), and it quickly became a respected and influential work--particularly on the Romantic composers such as Beethoven, Berlioz, Schumann, Chopin, etc. The Mass itself opens with a profoundly gloomy theme, as if conjuring up dozens of lost souls to sing for their forsaken humanity. Gorgeous, otherworldly melodies folllow one on the other, particularly the last music he ever wrote, the haunting "Lacryimosa," which sounds like a soul breathing its last before slinking off.
Follow the links below to hear excerpts of the music on Amazon. I also have numerous versions of the above which I would be happy to lend you.
Haydn: Symphony No. 45: http://www.amazon.com/Haydn-Symphonies-Nos-45-101/dp/B00000146H/ref=sr_1_6?ie=UTF8&s=music&qid=1265653852&sr=1-6
Haydn, Symphony No.49: http://www.amazon.com/Haydn-Symphonies-No-Lamentation-Passione/dp/B0000013X2/ref=sr_1_12?ie=UTF8&s=music&qid=1265653948&sr=1-12
Mozart, Symphony No. 25: http://www.amazon.com/Mozart-Symphonies-Clarinet-Peter-Schmidl/dp/B000001GC5/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=music&qid=1265652706&sr=1-3
Mozart, Piano Concertos 20 & 24: http://www.amazon.com/Mozart-Great-Concertos-Wolfgang-Amadeus/dp/B0000041LF/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&s=music&qid=1265654007&sr=1-3
Mozart, Requiem Mass: http://www.amazon.com/Mozart-Requiem-Aug%C3%A9r-Bartoli-Wiener/dp/B0000041ZS/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=music&qid=1265653804&sr=1-1